Friday, March 27, 2009

InnerLink Metaphysical Research Journal (ILMRJ)

Merry Meet,

Founded in November of Renpet 2007 C.E. (Common Era), the InnerLink Metaphysical Research Journal (ILMRJ) is the official journal of Antiquus Research and the Antiquus Research Group project, with a focus on the many types and practices of Divination from the learned experientials and perspectives of Alternative Spiritualists and Religions worldwide (inclusive of the broad divinatory practices within the realm of Esoteric Mysticism). Yes, the ILMRJ has reincarnated and resurrected in order to further the dissemination of religio-spiritual truth via the Divine Ancient Egyptian Goddess Ma'at!

We do indeed cherish our scholarly freedom of research, study, ideas and theories, and authorship outside of traditional academia and mainstream religious institutional environments.

AND YES--we Pagans are surely under the scrutiny (i.e., Peer Review) of our colleagues within the Neo-Pagan Community globally to offer genuine, credible, and accurate information resources, products, and services!

Please keep in mind that the religio-spiritual work we provide along with the services we have provided over so many years helps so many.

And we have never charged a cent for our religio-spiritual services.

Em Hotep,

Blessed Be & Merry Part!

Summum Bonum,

Reverend Dr. Kheti A. Sahure
Temple of Kemetic Wicca

Wednesday, March 25, 2009

Association of Smith Pagans aims to educate - Features

Association of Smith Pagans aims to educate - Features

Saturday, March 14, 2009

Applied Magick


"DESPITE the fact that obeah is clearly defined as regards its origin in Ashanti witchcraft, and its early development among the Jamaica slaves, in course of time it has become so confused with voodoo and other superstitious practices that now the word is used as a generic term for any kind of West India witchcraft and by extension it embraces even 'a fetish or magic object used in witchcraft.' (1)

As a consequence, it is difficult for the average reader to clearly differentiate the real from pseudo-obeah unless he keeps in mind the fundamental principles which were established in the preceding chapter, and which may be briefly summarized as follows.

Obeah, as the continuation of Ashanti witchcraft, is professedly a projection of spiritual power with the harm of an individual as an objective. Practically, its end is attained through fear, supplemented if needs be by secret poisoning. The agent is the servant of the Sasabonsam or Devil who is invoked and relied upon to produce the desired effect. Consequently real obeah must be regarded as a form of Devil-worship..."

Joseph J. Williams, Psychic Phenomena of Jamaica. (New York: The Dial press, 1934), 109.

Friday, March 13, 2009

Ancient Egyptian: Suggested Reading

Temple of Kemetic Wicca Theological Seminary
Ancient Egyptian – Suggested Reading

The Temple's Priesthood / Priestesshood training program is quite rigorous and does require a vast amount of reading, studying, comparative analysis, expository writing, presentation, and practicum:

1. A Dictionary of Egyptian Gods and Goddesses [1986] George Hart.
2. A Handbook of Egyptian Religion [1907] Adolf Erman, Königliche Museen zu Berlin.
3. An Egyptian Book of Shadows: Eight Seasonal Rites of Egyptian Paganism [2000] Jocelyn Almond, Keith Seddon.
4. Ancient Egypt and Black Africa [1996] Dr. Théophile Obenga.
5. Ancient Egypt: An Illustrated Reference to the Myths, Religions, Pyramids and Temples of the Land of the Pharaohs [2002] Lorna Oakes, Lucia Gahlin.
6. Ancient Egyptian Coffin Texts: Spells 1-354 [2000] Dr. Raymond O. Faulkner.
7. Ancient Egyptian Divination and Magic [1998] Eleanor L. Harris.
8. Ancient Egyptian Magic [1980] Dr. Bob Brier.
9. Ancient Egyptian Magic [2003] Dr. Geraldine Pinch.
10. Ancient Egyptian Religion: An Interpretation [2000] Henri Frankfort.
11. Ancient Records of Egypt [1907] Dr. James H. Breasted.
12. Awakening Osiris: The Egyptian Book of the Dead [1988] Normandi Ellis.
13. Conceptions of God in Ancient Egypt [1996] Erik Hornung, John Baines.
14. Concise Dictionary of Middle Egyptian [1970] Dr. Raymond O. Faulkner.
15. Development of Religion and Thought in Ancient Egypt [1905] Dr. James H. Breasted.
16. Egypt of the Pharaohs: An Introduction [1964, 1972] Sir Alan Henderson Gardiner.
17. Egypt, Canaan & Israel in Ancient Times [1993] Dr. Donald B. Redford.
18. Egypt: Gods, Myths and Religion [2001] Lucia Gahlin.
19. Egypt: Three Essays on the History, Religion and Art of Ancient Egypt [1891] Martin Brimmer, Minna Timmins Chapman.
20. Egyptian Astronomy [1980] Edwin C. Krupp.
21. Egyptian Cosmology: The Animated Universe [1997, 2001] Moustafa Gadalla.
22. Egyptian Divinities: The All Who Are THE ONE [2001] Moustafa Gadalla.
23. Egyptian Grammar (Egyptology: Griffith Institute) [1957] Sir Alan Henderson Gardiner.
24. Egyptian Harmony: The Visual Music [2000] Moustafa Gadalla.
25. Egyptian Hieroglyphics: How to Read and Write Them [1989] Stephane Rossini.
26. Egyptian Ideas of the Future Life [1908] E.A. Wallis Budge.
27. Egyptian Love Spells and Rituals [2005] Claudia Dillaire.
28. Egyptian Magic [1908] E.A. Wallis Budge.
29. Egyptian Magic [1982] Florence Farr.
30. Egyptian Magick: Enter the Body of Light & Travel the Magickal Universe [1997] Gerald & Betty Schueler.
31. Egyptian Medicine and Its Curing [1948] Dr. Benjamin M. Duggar.
32. Egyptian Mystics: Seekers of the Way [2003] Moustafa Gadalla.
33. Egyptian Mythology [1968] Veronica Ions.
34. Egyptian Mythology [1997] Simon Goodenough.
35. Egyptian Mythology: A Guide to the Gods, Goddesses, and Traditions of Ancient Egypt [2004] Dr. Geraldine Pinch.
36. Egyptian Paganism for Beginners [2004] Jocelyn Almond.
37. Egyptian Power Stamps [2003] Dr. Ronald L Bonewitz, Douglas Bloch.
38. Egyptian Reading Book [1948] Adriaan de Buck.
39. Egyptian Reading Book for Beginners [2003] E.A. Wallis Budge.
40. Egyptian Religion [1973] Siegfried Morenz.
41. Egyptian Religion: The Beliefs of Ancient Egypt Explored and Explained [2002] Lucia Gahlin.
42. Egyptian Rhythm: The Heavenly Melodies [2002] Moustafa Gadalla.
43. Egyptian Scarab Oracle [2001] DeTraci Regula, Kerigwen.
44. Egyptian Symbols [2008] Heike Owusu.
45. Egyptian Tarot Deck (Cards) [2001] Comte C. de Saint-Germain.
46. Egyptology Today [2008] Richard Wilkinson.
47. Egyptology: Search for the Tomb of Osiris [2004] Emily Sands, Dugald A. Steer, Helen Ward.
48. Exiled Egyptians: The Heart of Africa [1999] Moustafa Gadalla.
49. Feasts of Light: Celebrations for the Seasons of Life Based on the Egyptian Goddess Mysteries [1999] Normandi Ellis.
50. Fundamentals of Egyptian Grammar: Elements [2000] Leo Depuydt.
51. Genesis in Egypt: The Philosophy of Ancient Egyptian Creation Accounts [1988] Dr. James P. Allen.
52. Gods and Myths of Ancient Egypt [1986] Robert Armour.
53. Gods, Rites, Rituals and Religion of Ancient Egypt [2008] Lucia Gahlin.
54. Historical Deception: The Untold Story of Ancient Egypt [1999] Moustafa Gadalla.
55. History & Chronology of the Egyptian 18th Dynasty [1967] Dr. Donald B. Redford.
56. History of Ancient Egyptians [1908] Dr. James H. Breasted.
57. History of Egypt Chaldea Syria Babylonia and Assyria [1903, 1904] Gaston Maspero, Archibald Henry Sayce, M.L. McClure.
58. History of Egypt [1905] Dr. James H. Breasted.
59. How to Read Egyptian Hieroglyphs [1998, 2001] Mark Collier, Bill Manley.
60. Legends of Ancient Egypt [2000] Dr. Margaret A. Murray.
61. Metu Neter Volume 1: The Great Oracle of Tehuti and the Egyptian System of Spiritual Cultivation [1990] Ra Un Nefer Amen.
62. Middle Egyptian [2001, 2002] Dr. James P. Allen.
63. Myth and Symbol in Ancient Egypt [1959] R.T. Rundle Clark.
64. Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt [2001] Dr. Donald B. Redford.
65. Red Land, Black Land: Daily Life in Ancient Egypt [2008] Barbara Mertz.
66. Religion and Magic in Ancient Egypt [2003] Dr. Rosalie David.
67. Short History of the Egyptian People [1923] E.A. Wallis Budge.
68. Sixth and Seventh Book of Moses [1997] Egyptian Publishing Co.
69. Symbols of Egypt [2000] Heike Owusu.
70. Temples, Tombs, and Hieroglyphs: A Popular History of Ancient Egypt [2007] Barbara Mertz.
71. The Ancient Egyptian Prayerbook [2005} Tamara L. Siuda.
72. The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts [2005] Dr. James P. Allen.
73. The Ancient Egyptian Roots of Christianity [2007] Moustafa Gadalla.
74. The Ancient Egyptian Wisdom Texts [2007] Dr. Muata Ashby.
75. The Ancient Gods Speak: A Guide to Egyptian Religion [2002] Dr. Donald B. Redford.
76. The Art of Medicine in Ancient Egypt [2006] Dr. James P. Allen.
77. The Black Ancient Egyptians [2007] Dr. Muata Ashby.
78. The Book of Egyptian Ritual [2002] Jocelyn Almond.
79. The Calendars of Ancient Egypt [1950] Richard A. Parker.
80. The Complete Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Egypt [2003] Richard H. Wilkinson.
81. The Daily Life of the Ancient Egyptians [1999] Dr. Bob Brier, Hoyt Hobbs.
82. The Egyptian Book of Life [1988, 2004] Dr. Ramses Seleem.
83. The Egyptian Book of the Dead [2000] Dr. Raymond O. Faulkner.
84. The Egyptian Coffin Texts (volume 2. Texts of spells 76-163) [1947] Sir Alan Henderson Gardiner.
85. The Egyptian Coffin Texts [1954] Adriaan de Buck.
86. The Egyptian Demotic Language [2008] Leonardo Caldas Vieira.
87. The Egyptology Handbook [2005] Emily Sands, Dugald A. Steer.
88. The Glory of Ancient Egypt [1990] Dr. Bob Brier.
89. The Gods of Ancient Egypt [1998] Pascal Vernus, Erich Lessing, Jane Marie Todd.
90. The Gods of the Egyptians: Studies in Egyptian Mythology [1969] E.A. Wallis Budge.
91. The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt [2002, 2003] Ian Shaw.
92. The Sacred Tradition in Ancient Egypt: The Esoteric Wisdom Revealed [2000] Rosemary Clark.
93. The Search for God in Ancient Egypt [2001] Jan Assmann, David Lorton.
94. The Serpent Myths of Ancient Egypt [1873] William Ricketts Cooper.
© 2009 Temple of Kemetic Wicca,
Temple of Kemetic Wicca Theological Seminary
Eclectic Priests & Priestesses of Ma'at

Wednesday, March 11, 2009

History of Witchcraft

History of Witchcraft

Hex Witch and History of Witchcraft forums have been combined and will now be known as History of Witchcraft. Topics of interest include but are not limited to:

▪ Aboriginal Witchcraft
▪ Afrikan Witchcraft
▪ Animalia (Familiars & Minions)
▪ Black Magick
▪ Blood Rituals
▪ Candle Magick
▪ Cauldron Magick
▪ Cemetery (Graveyard) Spellwork
▪ Chaos Magick
▪ Dark Witchcraft
▪ Demonology
▪ Fire Magick
▪ Goofer Dust (Graveyard Dirt)
▪ Heathenism
▪ Heka
▪ Hoodoo
▪ Magick (General)
▪ Minions (Fawning, Servile Spirit Entities & Mundane Human Assistants)
▪ Native American Witchcraft
▪ Necromancy
▪ Night Witches
▪ Occultism
▪ Polarity Magick (Yin-Yang, Gender, Duality)
▪ Psychic Domination
▪ Ritual Cannibalism
▪ Rootwork (Conjure)
▪ Satanism (LHP)
▪ The Nature of Evil
▪ Vampyrism (Vampirism)
▪ Vodou (Voodoo)

This eGroup is devoted to researching and tracing the historical, anthropological, sociological roots and panoramic history of Witchcraft as well as the Universality of Witchcraft (Global Magick and Witchcraft). The beliefs, traditions, customs, and practices of an earlier time throughout social history will be examined. A concrete study of the evolution of the words, for example, "Witchcraft, Witch, Wicca, and Magic(k)" will be conducted from the insights and perspectives of Alternative Religion Spiritualists. Our endeavors also include the origins (etymologies) of the words "Pagan, Paganism, and Neo-Paganism". From an independent and alternative research approach, topic and subject matter include: The Salem Witch Hunts and Witch Trials; Witchcraft Persecutions and Religious Zealotry; Medieval Magick; Renaissance Mages; Astrology in Antiquity; Religion and Magick During the Middle Ages; the Influence of Alchemy and Esoteric Mysticism on Early Witchcraft practices; Folklore; Grimoires and Book of Shadows (BoS); Spellwork, Incantations, and Rituals; Daemonology (Demonology); and human motivation as it relates to and influences spiritual consciousness. Last but not least, this a place where you will find hexes, curses, incantations, and all kinds of spells, rituals, and ceremonies of malcontent. Please share your curio with Hex Witch.

This forum is not for the squeamish, faint of heart, or those who are easily offended. You must be age 18+ to join.

Google Groups
History of Witchcraft
Visit this group

Tuesday, March 10, 2009

Antiquus Research

Antiquus Research:
An Alternative Approach to Independent Ancient Historical and Theological Research

▪ The Antiquus Research website has moved: Antiquus Research

Antiquus Research is an independent, non-profit organization and project devoted to the research, study, teaching, and cogent analysis of the ancient, ancestral, historical, archaeological, cultural-anthropological, sociological, religio-spiritual (theological, thealogical, theosophical), esoteric - metaphysical paths and practices of humankind who engaged in the vastness of Alternative Religions and Spiritualities (ARS) through modern times. The scope and focus (both professional and avocational) involve conducting purposeful independent, original social scientific research utilizing technology, innovative qualitative and quantitative (statistical) research approaches and design methods.

Our research projects center upon Afrikan Traditional Religions (Ifá, Santería, and Vodou - Voodoo), Esoteric Mysticism, Hoodoo (an ethnocultural spirituality), Kemeticism (a modern reconstruction and interpretation of Ancient Egyptian religion), Magick, Native American Spirituality, Paganism, Rituals, Spellwork, Wicca (the religion}, and Witchcraft (the practice). If you are interested in contributing relevant research materials, then please feel free to apply at Antiquus Research.

Also visit our Yahoo! eGroup forum:
Antiquus Research Group

Monday, March 9, 2009

Ancient Egyptian History & Culture (AEHC)

Visit the Ancient Egyptian History & Culture (AEHC) website and Alt-Webring:

The AEHC highlights online resources and information about Ancient Egyptian history, culture, Egyptology, religion (Kemeticism) and spirituality, science and medicine, Priest/esshood, Egyptian Book of the Dead, archaeology, Ancient Egyptian Language (AEL) - Middle Egyptian Language, and more.

Monday, March 2, 2009

Modern Diabolism


WE have finished with the witnesses of Lucifer, and I think that the search-light of a drastic criticism has left them in considerable disarray. We approach the limit of the present inquiry, but before summing up and presenting such a general statement or conclusion as may be warranted by the facts, there is one point, left over hereunto, and designed for final consideration, because it appeals more exclusively to professed transcendentalists, which it will be necessary to treat briefly. I have already indicated that sporadic revivals of black magic have occasionally been heard of by mystics here in England, and from time to time we have also heard vaguely of obscure assemblies of Luciferians. Quite recently an interview with Papus, the French occultist, published in Light, mentions a society which was devoted to the cultus of Lucifer, star of the morning, quite distinct from Masonry, quite unimportant, and since very naturally dead. Now, a large proportion of mystics here in England are High-Grade Masons, and if a society of the Palladium had extended to anything remotely approaching the proportions alleged, they could not have failed to know of it. I will go further and affirm that our non-Masonic transcendental associations have abundant opportunities to become acquainted with institutions similar to their own, and it is preposterous to suppose that there could be several Palladian triangles working their degrees in this country without our being aware of the fact. But we have not been aware of it, and our only informations concerning Palladism have come to us from France. We do not accept these informations; we know that the persons here in England who are alleged by French false witnesses to be connected with the Palladium are not so connected, and are now learning of it for the first time. The statements concerning Mr John Yarker are categorically untrue; the gross calumny published by the "converted" Diana Vaughan about Dr Wynn Westcott, who happens to be a High-Grade Mason, she will never dare to come forth from her "retreat" and re-affirm within the jurisdiction of these islands, because she knows well that a British jury would make a large demand upon her reputed American dollars. Let us, however, put aside for the moment the mendacities and forgeries which complicate the question of Lucifer, and let us approach Palladism from an altogether different side. I believe that I may speak with a certain accent of authority upon any question which connects with the French magus Éliphas Lévi. I am an old student of his works, and of the aspects of occult science and magical history which arise out of them; in the year 1886 I published a digest of his writings which has been the only attempt to present them to English readers until the present year when I have undertaken a translation in extenso of the Dogme et Rituel de la Haute Magie, which is actually in the hands of the printer. Now, it has not been alleged in so many words that the. radix of Modern Diabolism and the Masonic cultus of Lucifer is to be found in Éliphas Lévi, but that is the substance of the charge. Most, or all, of the witnesses agree in representing him as an atrocious Satanist, an invoker of Lucifer, a celebrater of black masses, and an adept in the practical blasphemies of Eucharistic sacrilege; all of them father either upon the Palladium or upon Pike a variety of documents containing gross thefts from Lévi; some of them, directly and upon their own responsibility, cite passages from his works, always with conspicuous bad faith. Finally, they agree in connecting him with the foundation of the New and Reformed Palladium through his alleged disciple Phileas Waller; and one of them goes so far as to say that Palladism was a further development or restoration of a Satanic society directed by Éliphas Lévi and operating his theurgic system, which he in turn, if I rightly understand the mixed hypothesis of M. de la Rive, may have derived from the Palladic rite of 1730. If we accept for the moment this origin of the reformed order, it will follow that if the occult doctrines of Éliphas Lévi have been seriously misunderstood or grossly defamed by the witnesses, the diabolical or Luciferian connection of Palladism does not wear the complexion which has been ascribed to it. It is represented as: (a) outwardly Masonic, and (b) actually theurgic. (c) It is Manichæan in doctrine. (d) It regards Lucifer as an eternal principle co-existent, but in a hostile sense, with Adonaï. (e) It holds that the beneficent deity is Lucifer, while Adonaï is malevolent; (f) Certain sections of Palladists, however, recognise that Lucifer is identical with Satan, and is the evil principle. (g) This section adores the evil principle as such. Now, in each and all these matters the Palladian system conflicts with that of Lévi.

To give a colourable aspect to their hypothesis, the witnesses affirm that Lévi was a high-grade Mason. He was nothing of the kind; he affirms most distinctly in his "History of Magic," that for any knowledge which he possessed about the mysteries of the fraternity, he owed his initiation only to God and to his individual studies. Secondly, the practice of ceremonial magic, which is what the witnesses understand by theurgy, is a practice condemned by Lévi, except as an isolated experiment to fortify intellectual conviction as to the truth of magical theorems. He attempted it for this purpose in the spring of the year 1854, and having satisfied himself as to the fact, he did not renew it. Thirdly, the philosophy of Éliphas Lévi is in direct contrast to Manichæan doctrine; it cannot be explained by dualism, but must be explained by its opposite, namely, triplicity in unity. He shows that "the unintelligent disciples of Zoroaster have divided the duad without referring it to unity, thus separating the pillars of the temple, and seeking to halve God" (Dogme, p. 129, 2nd edition). Is that a Manichæan doctrine? Again: " If you conceive the Absolute as two, you must immediately conceive it as three to recover the unity principle" (Ibid.). Once more: "Divinity, one in its essence, has two fundamental conditions of being—necessity and liberty " (Ibid., p. 127).

And yet again: "If God were one only, He would never be Creator nor Father. If He were two, there would be antagonism or division in the infinite, and this would be severance or death for every possible existence; He is therefore three for the creation by Himself, and in His image of the infinite multitude of beings and numbers. Thus He is really one in Himself and triple in our conception, by which we also behold Him triple in Himself and one in our intelligence and in our love. This is a mystery for the faithful and a logical necessity for the initiate of the absolute and true sciences" (Ibid., p. 138). And the witnesses of Lucifer have the effrontery to represent Lévi as a dualist! I will not discredit their understanding by supposing that they could misread so plain a principle, nor dissemble my full conviction that they acted with intentional bad faith. Fourthly, Éliphas Lévi regarded Lucifer as a conception of transcendental mythology, and the devil as an impossible fiction, or an inverted and blasphemous conception of God—divinity à rebours.

He describes the Ophite heresy which offered adoration to the serpent and the Caïnite heresy which justified the revolt of the first angel and the first murderer as errors fit for classification with the monstrous idols of the anarchic symbolism of India (Rituel, pp. 13, 14). Is that diabolism? Is that the cultus of Lucifer? True, Lévi did not believe in the personal existence of a father of lies, and if it be Satanism not to do so, let us be content to diabolise with Lévi while the false witnesses illustrate the methods of their father.

It is unnecessary to multiply quotations, but here is one more: "The author of this book is a Christian like you; his faith is that of a Catholic deeply and strongly convinced; therefore his mission is not to deny dogmas, but to combat impiety under one of its most dangerous forms, that of erroneous belief and superstition. . . . Away with the idol which hides our Saviour I Down with the tyrant of falsehood! Down with the black god of the Manichæans! Down with the Ahriman of the old idolaters! Live God alone and His incarnate

Logos, Jesus the Christ, Saviour of the world, who beheld Satan precipitated from heaven!" Go to, M. le Docteur Bataille! À bas, Signor Margiotta! Phi, diabolus and Leo Taxil!

Seeing then that Éliphas Lévi has been calumniously represented, and that he was not a Satanist, he could not have founded a Satanic society, nor could a Manichæan order have been developed out of his doctrines. Hence if a Palladian Society do exist at Charleston, it either owes nothing to Lévi, or its cultus has been falsely described. In other words, from whatever point we approach the witnesses of Lucifer, they are subjected to a rough unveiling. In the words of the motto on my title, the first in this plot was Lucifer—videlicet, the Father of Lies!

Arthur Edward Waite, Devil-Worship in France; Or, The Question of Lucifer; a Record of Things Seen and Heard in the Secret Societies According to the Evidence of Initiates (London: G. Redway, 1896), 290-298.

Sunday, March 1, 2009

Names of Deities

Ancient Egyptian Legends
by M. A. Murray


Abtu-fish.—A mythological fish which accompanies the Boat of Ra at sunrise.

Amemt.—The mythical animal which devours the hearts of the wicked at the Judgment of Osiris.

Amon.—God of Thebes. In and after the xviiith dynasty he became the supreme deity of Egypt under the name of Amon-Ra.

Ant-fish.—A mythological fish which accompanies the Boat of Ra at sunrise.

Anubis.—A jackal-headed deity who presided over the embalming of the dead. He was said to be the illegitimate son of Osiris and Nephthys, and, in the form of a dog, to have protected Isis in her wanderings.

Apep.—The enemy of Ra in the Duat.

Astarte.—A Syrian goddess, whose name is found occasionally in Egyptian inscriptions.

Atmu.—An early name of the solar deity worshipped at Heliopolis. In later times, the name of the setting sun.

Bes.—A bandy-legged dwarf with horns. God of music and pleasure, and protector of children. Possibly also a god of birth.

Besa.—A spirit of the corn.

Geb.—The earth-god, father of Osiris.

Harmakhis.—Horus on the Horizon, i.e. the sun at its rising and setting.

Harpocrates.—Horus the Child, son of Isis and Osiris.

Hathor.—Goddess of love and beauty; often identified with all the other goddesses, including Sekhmet.

Hekt.—The frog-headed goddess of birth.

Her-desuf.—A form of Horus.

Horakhti.—The Horizon-Horus. The same as Harmakhis.

Horus.—The hawk-headed god is, properly speaking, the brother of Isis and Osiris; but is constantly confused with Horus the Child, and is called Avenger or Protector of his Father.

Isis.—The greatest of Egyptian goddesses, wife of Osiris, and mother of Harpocrates.

Khepera.—The rising sun, god of resurrection.

Khnum.—The ram-headed god of the cataract, who creates man upon the potter's wheel.

Khonsu.—The moon-god at Thebes.

Mehen.—The serpent who protects Ra in the Duet.

Mentu.—God of war.

Meskhent.—Goddess of birth.

Min.—Father of gods and men. God of Koptos.

Neith.—Goddess of Saïs. Identified by the Greeks with Athena.

Nekhbet.—The vulture-goddess of Upper Egypt.

Nephthys.—Sister of Isis and Osiris.

Nepra.—A spirit of the corn.

Nun.—God of the primaeval waters.

Nut.—The sky-goddess, mother of Osiris.

Osiris.—One of the chief gods of Egypt. Murdered and torn to pieces by his brother Set,

revivified by Isis and Horus.

Ra.—The Sun-god, one of the chief gods of Egypt. Heliopolis (the On of the Bible) was the principal centre of his worship.

Sekhmet.—The lioness-headed goddess of Memphis.

Selk.—The scorpion-goddess.

Set.—Brother and murderer of Osiris. Looked upon, in late times, as the Author of Evil.

Shu.—Twin-brother of Tefnut. He holds up the sky above the earth.

Sokar.—The hawk-headed god of the dead. When fused with Ptah (Ptah-Sokar) he appears in the form of a misshapen dwarf, and is then looked upon as a god of resurrection.

Tatanen.—An obscure god, generally fused with Ptah of Memphis as Ptah-Tatanen.

Ta-urt.—The hippopotamus goddess of birth.

Tefnut.—Lioness-headed. Twin-sister of Shu. The two form the constellation Gemini.

Tepu-yn.—A spirit of the corn.

Thoth.—The ibis-headed god of all learning and magic. Chief centre of worship Khemennu or Hermopolis, now called Eshmunen.

Uazet.—Goddess of Lower Egypt.

Up-uaut.—The jackal-god of Siut.

Murray, Margaret Alice. Legends of Ancient Egypt. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, 2000, pp. 117-119.